: prolonged separation from one's country or home, as by force of
circumstances: wartime exile.
We the Texas Band of Yaqui Indians are descendants of the Yaqui (Yoeme) Indian Nation known throughout the Southwest who inhabited the original territory of the Sonoran Desert linking from the State of Sonora into the Southern United States before there was a borderline dividing the aboriginal lands. We are descendants of a Band of Mountain Yaqui Indians who entered the State of Texas in the years of 1870-1875 under the leadership of Ya'ut (leader) Ave'lino (almost to the line) Covajori (mexican head) Urquides during and before the Yaqui Indian campaigns in Mexico to terminate the Yaquis,. Chased out of Mexico wanted for killing Mexican Soldiers in Northern Sonora, Ave'lino's Indians numbering around 50 to 80 fled from the Northern Mountain Villages of Baviacora Sonora to the State of Chihuahua to the town of Jimenez in 1863, then chased out of Chihuahua to the border of Ojinaga into Texas to the Township of Presidio and Ft. Davis around 1870. All of these Indians changed their names and identities in order to avoid the genocides and executions in Mexico and did not want to go to the Texas Apache, Yaqui Reservation arranged by the Bureau of Indian Affairs that Texas set aside land for in 1864 documented in the "Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo" that ended the Wars in Mexico. The Texas Reservation was never used due to lack of Indian Agents to oversee the Agency.
The family descendants of Ave'lino were told never to tell anyone that they were Hiaki (yaqui) and hid their Indian identities within the families until recent decades.
The descendants of leader Ave'lino carried down all oral stories handed down to them and all confidential information and contributed them to the Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona, the Presidio Texas Historical Society and the Overland Trails Museum in Ft. Davis Texas for it's own Yaqui Indian Exhibit. The Texas Band of Yaqui Indians is not a heritage group nor a cultural association, our documentations of proof of Native American ancestry consists of Federal Census and Federal Indian Census records before 1934, Birth and Death Records dating back to the early 1800's to the Indian Missions and Yaqui Villages in Sonora and Southern Arizona with the original Yaqui Indian family names
before they were changed during the genocides and migrations, these documentations took many many years to obtain, file and archive. All enrolled members reference these records and documentations on file. The Yaqui Indians were never conquered and most of them scattered throughout the southwest unidentified and uncounted, most who left reference their homelands as their source of ancestry and to begin a new life away from the cultural genocides of mexico. Our Yaqui Indian Ancestors were Mountain Yaqui Warriors at war with the "yorim" (Mexicans) and were ruthless fighters and protectors of the "Hiakim" the Yaqui Homelands. The Texas Band of Yaqui Indians continue to exist as a Group "Openly" by preserving our culture by means of Language preservation and Traditions with the founded "Texas Yaqui Bow Leaders Coyote Society" based now out of Lubbock Texas.
Yaqui Individuals, Groups or Families who fled the Atrocities and Genocides of the Mexican Government all have oral knowledge of their Yaqui Ancestry but no other way of proving they were Yaqui to U.S. officials other than Social Relations to other Yaqui Communities far away in another state with little or no Recognition by the U.S. Government. Thousands of the Yaqui population in the U.S. are not federally recognized by the Government due to forced exiles to other states in the U.S. who did not register themselves in Arizona where a large population sought refuge in the early 1900's.
All Yaqui peoples in the U.S. all come from the traditional homelands in Sonora, some have held on to their heritage and many were conquered and faded into other cultures. It is difficult for a Tribe of people who so widely scattered throughout the southwest to keep ties with a people who were set to be exterminated by the Mexican Government equivalent to the Jewish Holocaust, So individual families who sought refuge in the U.S. in other states were not to speak of their Indian identity due to harsh prosecutions that awaited them upon identification, They faced bounties on their head and there were many pesos for them that cowboys or soldiers would be glad to collect on. Thousands of Yaqui's who ended up in Texas were involved in the wars with Pancho Villa and Maderos armies and lived in the States of Chihuahua and Coahuila and Texas and others who came to Texas were yucatan escapees who found refuge as individuals or families. Thousands of Yaqui's who went to California were workers from Yuma Arizona who branched away from other Yaqui's who resided in Ehrenberg which is now a ghost town. 30 years ago it was impossible for other Yaqui People in the U.S. to obtain documentations that they were indeed Yaqui, but with today's technology, Records and Documentations from online Genealogical Databases can now be obtained eliminating any question that an Individual and or family is indeed Yaqui Indian or is of Yaqui Indian Ancestry.
There has been a long argument that the Yaqui (Yoeme) people are mexican, or mexican indian. The Yoeme fought hard battles against non-indians to seperate themselves from the yorim (non-indians) and eventually became divided by borders. Yaqui Indians in Mexico are considered Indigenous Yaqui Indians of Mexico, and the Yaqui Indians in the U.S. are considered Yaqui Native Americans or Native Americans. Apache (N'de) were once indigenous to Mexico, Pimas and other groups who originated what is now the Sonoran border were and are indigenous to Mexico as well. The Comanche Peoples migrated for trading and executed raids back and forth from the southern plains into Coahuila, Chihuahua Sonora and Durango Mexico. The Kickapoo Indians seperated with one group going into Mexico and the Texas border. Indigenous Tribes who originate from what is now the Sonoran border, do not recognize the border and were caught between wars of encroaching peoples. Indigenous indian people are the same no matter what side of the border they may be on. They have their own languages and maintain to keep their traditions alive, It is their homeland long before there was a Mexico or the U.S,. Other Cultures take ideas and ways of Indigenous peoples and corrupt it into their own and give it a different name, whether it's in Mexico or the U.S.,
The Agenda of the Texas Band of Yaqui Indians is to continue as a historic Tribal Group under State and Federal Laws and under the ByLaws and Constitution set forth by our Band.
Texas Band of Yaqui Indians
PO BOX 12076
Lubbock Texas 79452
Chairman, Iz Sotelo Ramirez
Vice-Chairman, Samuel Sotelo Ramirez
Secretary, Olivia Lovato
Treasurer, Ismael Sotelo Ramirez
Council Member, Ida Garcia
Council Member, JR Sotelo Ramirez
Council Member, Roberto Garcia
Bow Leaders Coyote Society "Wiko'i Ya'ura"
Group 1 and Group 2 (closed tribal ceremony)
Main Traditional Observances:
FEBRUARY- MAY :Lent /Easter
JANUARY 18th : Observance of Maso Kova
All Applicants to the Texas Band of Yaqui Indians must have proof of Yaqui Indian
Ancestry. According to State and Federal Laws all Native Americans who claim
ancestry MUST have Proof of Ancestry /Records and Documentations. You can
find and search your Yaqui Ancestry in Sonora FREE online at the following links:
Applications along with Records and Documentations of Yaqui Ancestry will be processed and
confirmed by Genealogy tracing records back to Yaqui Indian Missions and the Traditional
Pueblos in Sonora. Blood Quantums and Degrees are referenced from the Traditional Homelands
of the Yaqui Indian Nation. All Applicants will receive a letter of Receipt of Enrollment or Denial
of Enrollment via Article IV section 11a, of the Constitution of the Texas Band of Yaqui Indians.
All Records of proof of Ancestry for members will be filed with this office and will be issued a CDIB
or Tribal ID card under State and Federal Laws. (enrollment closed at this time)
*All TBYI tribal members all have proof of ancestry on file with this office.*
All Tribal Members records of genealogy and proof of documentations are held with strict confidentiality,
A word of Caution before starting your family Yoeme Genealogy, Be prepared to find things you never knew about when researching your Family members or Ancestors, Here are some examples:
1. Name changes or Last name changes (your last name may not be your real last name),
2. Relatives may have more than one Marriage (or) have other children left behind in Sonora,
3. Find Relatives in Yucatan who escaped the Slavery camps or died there,
4. Relative may not be Yaqui and did not trace back to Sonora (or) may be from another Indigenous Group in another State (or) may not be Indian (Spaniard),
5. Relative was left to another family (adopted) not in relation to you,
It can be a very heart breaking experience to find out these things but we must stay with facts and documentations,.
Yaqui Indian (texas band) laborers for the Southern Pacific Railroad in
El Paso Texas in route to New Mexico 1881. Texas Yaqui History states
that Yaqui's who resided in Presidio Tx. left to New Mexico to work for
A Mountain Yaqui (1900 circa) Texas Mexico border